Photo: Bjorn Giesenbauer (CC: ATT, NC, SA)

Grievance mechanisms exist at the project, company, sector, national, regional and international levels. They may directly address a company’s behaviour and responsibilities, a government’s obligation to protect citizens or an institution’s duty to comply with its policies and procedures.

Grievance mechanisms also vary objective, approach, target groups, composition, government backing, procedure and costs. Regional multilateral development banks include: